Postfix mail serveris su virtualiais hostais ir vartotojais

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Straipsnis apie pašto serverio kūrimo su virtualiais hostais/vartotojais procesą. Panaudosime Postfix, Dovecot programinės įrangos sprendimus taip pat viską valdysime MySQL duomenų bazėje. Kuriamas pašto serveris bus saugus, todėl reikės generuoti SSL sertifikatus arba naudoti TRUSTED tipo sertifikatus (pirktus iš lodarių). Su šiuo pašto serveriu bus galima pridėti išimti vartotojus, taip pat ir domenus, siųsti gauti paštą tiek per webmail tiek per populiariausius mail protokolus pasinaudojus mail klientais.

Prieš pradėdami kažką gaminti įsitikinkite:

  • Ar iš išorės neblokuojami šie portai 25, 465, 587, 110, 995, 143, 993 ?
  • Ar jūsų priskiriamas domenas turi MX įrašus su prioritetu 10, pvz.: example.com MX 10 84.72.26.198 ?

Kaip konfigūruoti papildomus servisus, OpenDKIM, Spf įrašus.

SSL sertifikatai[keisti]

Dovecot pasiūlys sugeneruoti self-signed sertifikatą nemokamai. Tokio tipo sertifikatas puikiai tinka pašto prisijungimams bei jo srautui šifruoti palyginus su pirktu sertifikatu. Niuansai! Vartotojai visada matys įspėjamąsias žinutes apie šį sugeneruotą sertifikatą, bus mažesnis patikimumas siunčiant laiškus į didelius pašto serverius tokius kaip gmail, yahoo, yandex, chujandex ir t.t. Paprasčiausiai jūs galite būti peradresuotas į gavėjo SPAM katalogą. Nusiperkant sertifikatą iš lodarių, to galima išvengti, bet mokėti bapkes kažkokiai firmai už dyką ? Argi tai lietuviška ? :-)

Paketų diegimas[keisti]

sudo apt-get install postfix postfix-mysql dovecot-core dovecot-imapd dovecot-pop3d dovecot-lmtpd dovecot-mysql mysql-server

Klausimai diegimo metu:[keisti]

Jūsų paklaus keleto klausimų:

  • Koks yra MySQL root slaptažodis (kad galėtų nudropinti visas duombazes / Joke).
  • Taip pat būsite paklaustas kokio tipo pašto serverio norite, renkamės Internet Site
  • Jūsų (FQDN formato) domeno pavadinimas, pvz.: example.com

MySQL[keisti]

Struktūros sukūrimas[keisti]

Sukuriame duombazę:

mysqladmin -p create mailserveris

Prisijungiame prie duombazės:

mysql -p mailserver

Sukuriame MySQL vartotoja (pašto serverio vidiniams naudojimams). Pakeiskite tiktais slaptažodį į savo sugeneruotą, arba sugeneruokite kažkokį tais

cat /dev/urandom| tr -dc 'a-zA-Z0-9' | fold -w 18| head -n1

Duodam visas teises į duombazę mailserveris ir prisijungimus tik iš localhost, t.y lokalaus serverio.

GRANT SELECT ON mailserveris.* TO 'mailuser'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY 'slaptažodis';

Perkraunam privilegijas

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Darom lentelę virtualiems domenams:

CREATE TABLE `virtual_domains` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
  `name` varchar(50) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

Tuomet darome lentelę visiems pašto adresams bei slaptažodžiams:

CREATE TABLE `virtual_users` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
  `domain_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `password` varchar(106) NOT NULL,
  `email` varchar(100) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  UNIQUE KEY `email` (`email`),
  FOREIGN KEY (domain_id) REFERENCES virtual_domains(id) ON DELETE CASCADE
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

Taip pat lentelė email aliasams t.y peradresavimams pvz.: jonas@lodariai.lt > admin@lodariai.lt

CREATE TABLE `virtual_aliases` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
  `domain_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `source` varchar(100) NOT NULL,
  `destination` varchar(100) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  FOREIGN KEY (domain_id) REFERENCES virtual_domains(id) ON DELETE CASCADE
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

Jeigu pataikėt viską parašyt tada labai zjbs. Keliaujam toliau

Duomenų pridėjimas[keisti]

Kadangi su duomenų struktūra susitvarkėme, reikia pridėti biški pačių duomenų:

INSERT INTO `mailserveris`.`virtual_domains`
 (`id` ,`name`)
VALUES ('1', 'example.com'),
 ('2', 'hostname.example.com'),
 ('3', 'hostname'),
 ('4', 'localhost.example.com');

Atsiminkite id tai unikalus numeris kuris nusako domeną, veliau jo mums prireiks. Pridedame pašto adresus į virtual_users lentelę. Tiktai pakeiskite paštų adresus į tuos kuriuos norite sudėti patys. Taip pat pakeiskite slaptažodžius.

INSERT INTO `mailserveris`.`virtual_users`
 (`id`, `domain_id`, `password` , `email`)
VALUES
 ('1', '1', ENCRYPT('slaptažodis', CONCAT('$6$', SUBSTRING(SHA(RAND()), -16))), 'email1@example.com'),
 ('2', '1', ENCRYPT('slaptažodis', CONCAT('$6$', SUBSTRING(SHA(RAND()), -16))), 'email2@example.com');

Norint sukurti pašto aliasą, t.y peradresavimą darome tai virtual_aliases lentelėje.

INSERT INTO `mailserveris`.`virtual_aliases`
 (`id`, `domain_id`, `source`, `destination`)
VALUES
 ('1', '1', 'alias@example.com', 'email1@example.com');

Dabar laikas patikrinti MySQL duomenis..

Testavimas[keisti]

Tikriname virtual_domains lentelę[keisti]

SELECT * FROM mailserveris.virtual_domains;

Rezultatas turetų būti toks:

+----+-----------------------+
| id | name                  |
+----+-----------------------+
|  1 | example.com           |
|  2 | hostname.example.com  |
|  3 | hostname              |
|  4 | localhost.example.com |
+----+-----------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Tikriname virtual_users lentelę[keisti]

SELECT * FROM mailserveris.virtual_users;

Rezultatas panašus į:

+----+-----------+-------------------------------------+--------------------+
| id | domain_id | password                            | email              |
+----+-----------+-------------------------------------+--------------------+
|  1 |         1 | $6$574ef443973a5529c20616ab7c6828f7 | email1@example.com |
|  2 |         1 | $6$030fa94bcfc6554023a9aad90a8c9ca1 | email2@example.com |
+----+-----------+-------------------------------------+--------------------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

Tikriname virtual_users lentelę[keisti]

SELECT * FROM mailserveris.virtual_aliases;

Rezultatas:

+----+-----------+-------------------+--------------------+
| id | domain_id | source            | destination        |
+----+-----------+-------------------+--------------------+
|  1 |         1 | alias@example.com | email1@example.com |
+----+-----------+-------------------+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Jeigu viskas ok, rašome exit ir išeiname.

Jeigu kažkas neišėjo ir rezultatai iš esmės skiriasi, pasitikrinkite ar turite visus pirštus ant rankų ir ar nepamiršote akinių pasiimti iš alaus baro ten kur vakar buvote..

Postfix[keisti]

Kitas žingsnis priversti Postfix priimti ateinančias žinutes skirtas domenams. Pirmiausia pasidarome konfigo atsarginę kopiją:

cp /etc/postfix/main.cf /etc/postfix/main.cf.orig

/etc/postfix/main.cf[keisti]

Redaguojame failą /etc/postfix/main.cf, kad atitiktų tai kas parašyta apačioje, tai pat pakeiskite example.com į savo domeną ir myhostname į savo sistemos

smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name (mano shustras serveris)
biff = no
# appending .domain is the MUA's job.
append_dot_mydomain = no
# Uncomment the next line to generate "delayed mail" warnings
#delay_warning_time = 4h
readme_directory = no
# TLS parameters
#smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
#smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
#smtpd_use_tls=yes
#smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtpd_scache
#smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache
smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/dovecot/dovecot.pem
smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/dovecot/private/dovecot.pem
smtpd_use_tls=yes
smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
smtp_tls_security_level = may
#Enabling SMTP for authenticated users, and handing off authentication to Dovecot
smtpd_sasl_type = dovecot
smtpd_sasl_path = private/auth
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
       permit_sasl_authenticated,
       permit_mynetworks,
       reject_unauth_destination
# See /usr/share/doc/postfix/TLS_README.gz in the postfix-doc package for
# information on enabling SSL in the smtp client.
myhostname = hostname.example.com
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
myorigin = /etc/mailname
#mydestination = example.com, hostname.example.com, localhost.example.com, localhost
mydestination = localhost
relayhost =
mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 [::ffff:127.0.0.0]/104 [::1]/128
mailbox_size_limit = 0
recipient_delimiter = +
inet_interfaces = all
#Handing off local delivery to Dovecot's LMTP, and telling it where to store mail
virtual_transport = lmtp:unix:private/dovecot-lmtp
#Virtual domains, users, and aliases
virtual_mailbox_domains = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-domains.cf
virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-maps.cf
virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-alias-maps.cf,
       mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-email2email.cf

/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-domains.cf[keisti]

Sukuriame failą virtualiems domenams, įsitikinkite jog suvedėte teisingą MySQL prisijungimo bei duombazės pavadinimo informaciją.

user = mailuser
password = mailuserpass
hosts = 127.0.0.1
dbname = mailserveris
query = SELECT 1 FROM virtual_domains WHERE name='%s'

/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-maps.cf[keisti]

Sukuriame failą /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-maps.cf, čia reikia suvesti tą pačia MySQL prisijungimo informaciją.

user = mailuser
password = mailuserpass
hosts = 127.0.0.1
dbname = mailserveris
query = SELECT 1 FROM virtual_users WHERE email='%s'

/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-alias-maps.cf[keisti]

Sukuriame failą /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-alias-maps.cf. Vėlgi ta pati prisijungimo informacija.

user = mailuser
password = mailuserpass
hosts = 127.0.0.1
dbname = mailserveris
query = SELECT destination FROM virtual_aliases WHERE source='%s'

/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-email2email.cf[keisti]

Sukuriame failą /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-email2email.cf. Ta pati istorija kaip su pastaraisiais failais.

user = mailuser
password = mailuserpass
hosts = 127.0.0.1
dbname = mailserveris
query = SELECT email FROM virtual_users WHERE email='%s'

Perkrauname Postfix[keisti]

sudo service postfix restart

Testavimai[keisti]

Įrašome šią komanda jog įsitikintume jog Postfix gali pasiekti pirmąjį domeną, pakeiskite example.com į savąjį domain. Komanda turi grąžinti 1 jeigu viskas pavyko.

postmap -q example.com mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-domains.cf

Įrašome šią komandą jog įsitikintume jog atrandamas pirmasis email ądresas MySQL duombazės lentelėje. Pakeisdami email1@example.com į savąjį. Gražintina reikšmė vėlgi turetų būti 1.

postmap -q email1@example.com mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-maps.cf

Norint pratestuoti ar veikia aliasai t.y peradresavimai suvedame šią komandą, pakeitę alias@example.com į jūsų. Gražintinas rezultatas turėtų būti tikrasis adresatas kuris turi gauti emailą..

postmap -q alias@example.com mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-alias-maps.cf

/etc/postfix/master.cf[keisti]

Pasidarome atsarginę šio failo kopiją:

cp /etc/postfix/master.cf /etc/postfix/master.cf.orig

Atsidarome failą, atkomentuojame dvi eilutes prasidedančias su submission ir smtps ir eilutes prasidedančias su -o. Failas turi atrodyti panašiai:

#
# Postfix master process configuration file.  For details on the format
# of the file, see the master(5) manual page (command: "man 5 master").
#
# Do not forget to execute "postfix reload" after editing this file.
#
# ==========================================================================
# service type  private unpriv  chroot  wakeup  maxproc command + args
#               (yes)   (yes)   (yes)   (never) (100)
# ==========================================================================
smtp      inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
#smtp      inet  n       -       -       -       1       postscreen
#smtpd     pass  -       -       -       -       -       smtpd
#dnsblog   unix  -       -       -       -       0       dnsblog
#tlsproxy  unix  -       -       -       -       0       tlsproxy
submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o syslog_name=postfix/submission
  -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
  -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
smtps     inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o syslog_name=postfix/smtps
  -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
  -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING

Visas failas:

#
# Postfix master process configuration file.  For details on the format
# of the file, see the master(5) manual page (command: "man 5 master" or
# on-line: http://www.postfix.org/master.5.html).
#
# Do not forget to execute "postfix reload" after editing this file.
#
# ==========================================================================
# service type  private unpriv  chroot  wakeup  maxproc command + args
#               (yes)   (yes)   (yes)   (never) (100)
# ==========================================================================
smtp      inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
#smtp      inet  n       -       -       -       1       postscreen
#smtpd     pass  -       -       -       -       -       smtpd
#dnsblog   unix  -       -       -       -       0       dnsblog
#tlsproxy  unix  -       -       -       -       0       tlsproxy
#submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
#  -o syslog_name=postfix/submission
#  -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
#  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
#  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
#  -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
#smtps     inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
#  -o syslog_name=postfix/smtps
#  -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes
#  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
#  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
#  -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
 submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o syslog_name=postfix/submission
  -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_reject_unlisted_recipient=no
  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=$mua_client_restrictions
  -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=$mua_helo_restrictions
  -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=$mua_sender_restrictions
  -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=
  -o smtpd_relay_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
  -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
smtps     inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o syslog_name=postfix/smtps
  -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_reject_unlisted_recipient=no
  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=$mua_client_restrictions
  -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=$mua_helo_restrictions
  -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=$mua_sender_restrictions
  -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=
  -o smtpd_relay_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
  -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
#628       inet  n       -       -       -       -       qmqpd
pickup    unix  n       -       -       60      1       pickup
cleanup   unix  n       -       -       -       0       cleanup
qmgr      unix  n       -       n       300     1       qmgr
#qmgr     unix  n       -       n       300     1       oqmgr
tlsmgr    unix  -       -       -       1000?   1       tlsmgr
rewrite   unix  -       -       -       -       -       trivial-rewrite
bounce    unix  -       -       -       -       0       bounce
defer     unix  -       -       -       -       0       bounce
trace     unix  -       -       -       -       0       bounce
verify    unix  -       -       -       -       1       verify
flush     unix  n       -       -       1000?   0       flush
proxymap  unix  -       -       n       -       -       proxymap
proxywrite unix -       -       n       -       1       proxymap
smtp      unix  -       -       -       -       -       smtp
relay     unix  -       -       -       -       -       smtp
#       -o smtp_helo_timeout=5 -o smtp_connect_timeout=5
showq     unix  n       -       -       -       -       showq
error     unix  -       -       -       -       -       error
retry     unix  -       -       -       -       -       error
discard   unix  -       -       -       -       -       discard
local     unix  -       n       n       -       -       local
virtual   unix  -       n       n       -       -       virtual
lmtp      unix  -       -       -       -       -       lmtp
anvil     unix  -       -       -       -       1       anvil
scache    unix  -       -       -       -       1       scache
#
# ====================================================================
# Interfaces to non-Postfix software. Be sure to examine the manual
# pages of the non-Postfix software to find out what options it wants.
#
# Many of the following services use the Postfix pipe(8) delivery
# agent.  See the pipe(8) man page for information about ${recipient}
# and other message envelope options.
# ====================================================================
#
# maildrop. See the Postfix MAILDROP_README file for details.
# Also specify in main.cf: maildrop_destination_recipient_limit=1
#
maildrop  unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
  flags=DRhu user=vmail argv=/usr/bin/maildrop -d ${recipient}
#
# ====================================================================
#
# Recent Cyrus versions can use the existing "lmtp" master.cf entry.
#
# Specify in cyrus.conf:
#   lmtp    cmd="lmtpd -a" listen="localhost:lmtp" proto=tcp4
#
# Specify in main.cf one or more of the following:
#  mailbox_transport = lmtp:inet:localhost
#  virtual_transport = lmtp:inet:localhost
#
# ====================================================================
#
# Cyrus 2.1.5 (Amos Gouaux)
# Also specify in main.cf: cyrus_destination_recipient_limit=1
#
#cyrus     unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
#  user=cyrus argv=/cyrus/bin/deliver -e -r ${sender} -m ${extension} ${user}
#
# ====================================================================
# Old example of delivery via Cyrus.
#
#old-cyrus unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
#  flags=R user=cyrus argv=/cyrus/bin/deliver -e -m ${extension} ${user}
#
# ====================================================================
#
# See the Postfix UUCP_README file for configuration details.
#
uucp      unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
 flags=Fqhu user=uucp argv=uux -r -n -z -a$sender - $nexthop!rmail ($recipient)
#
# Other external delivery methods.
#
ifmail    unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
 flags=F user=ftn argv=/usr/lib/ifmail/ifmail -r $nexthop ($recipient)
bsmtp     unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
 flags=Fq. user=bsmtp argv=/usr/lib/bsmtp/bsmtp -t$nexthop -f$sender $recipient
scalemail-backend unix  -       n       n       -       2       pipe
 flags=R user=scalemail argv=/usr/lib/scalemail/bin/scalemail-store ${nexthop} ${user} ${extension}
mailman   unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
 flags=FR user=list argv=/usr/lib/mailman/bin/postfix-to-mailman.py
 ${nexthop} ${user}

Vėl perkrauname Postfix[keisti]

service postfix restart

Su Postfix baigta. ;-)

Dovecot[keisti]

Dovecot leidžia vartotojams prisijungti ir pasitikrinti savo paštą per POP3 ir IMAP protokolus. Šioje straipsnio dalyje sukonfiguruosime Dovecot priversdami jį visur naudoti SSL, jog vartotojų slaptažodžiai ir duomenys nebūtų siunčiami į serverį atviru tekstu. Prieš viską pradedant daryti siūlyčiau vėlgi pasidaryti atsargines kopijas:

cp /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf.orig
cp /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf.orig
cp /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-auth.conf /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-auth.conf.orig
cp /etc/dovecot/dovecot-sql.conf.ext /etc/dovecot/dovecot-sql.conf.ext.orig
cp /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-master.conf /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-master.conf.orig
cp /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf.orig

/etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf[keisti]

Atsidarome pagrindinį Dovecot konfigūracijos failą ir sutvarkome kaip priklauso:

## Dovecot configuration file
# If you're in a hurry, see http://wiki2.dovecot.org/QuickConfiguration
# "doveconf -n" command gives a clean output of the changed settings. Use it
# instead of copy&pasting files when posting to the Dovecot mailing list.
# '#' character and everything after it is treated as comments. Extra spaces
# and tabs are ignored. If you want to use either of these explicitly, put the
# value inside quotes, eg.: key = "# char and trailing whitespace  "
# Default values are shown for each setting, it's not required to uncomment
# those. These are exceptions to this though: No sections (e.g. namespace {})
# or plugin settings are added by default, they're listed only as examples.
# Paths are also just examples with the real defaults being based on configure
# options. The paths listed here are for configure --prefix=/usr
# --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var
# Enable installed protocols
!include_try /usr/share/dovecot/protocols.d/*.protocol
protocols = imap pop3 lmtp
# A comma separated list of IPs or hosts where to listen in for connections. 
# "*" listens in all IPv4 interfaces, "::" listens in all IPv6 interfaces.
# If you want to specify non-default ports or anything more complex,
# edit conf.d/master.conf.
#listen = *, ::
# Base directory where to store runtime data.
#base_dir = /var/run/dovecot/
# Name of this instance. Used to prefix all Dovecot processes in ps output.
#instance_name = dovecot
# Greeting message for clients.
#login_greeting = Dovecot ready.
# Space separated list of trusted network ranges. Connections from these
# IPs are allowed to override their IP addresses and ports (for logging and
# for authentication checks). disable_plaintext_auth is also ignored for
# these networks. Typically you'd specify the IMAP proxy servers here.
#login_trusted_networks =
# Sepace separated list of login access check sockets (e.g. tcpwrap)
#login_access_sockets = 
# Show more verbose process titles (in ps). Currently shows user name and
# IP address. Useful for seeing who are actually using the IMAP processes
# (eg. shared mailboxes or if same uid is used for multiple accounts).
#verbose_proctitle = no
# Should all processes be killed when Dovecot master process shuts down.
# Setting this to "no" means that Dovecot can be upgraded without
# forcing existing client connections to close (although that could also be
# a problem if the upgrade is e.g. because of a security fix).
#shutdown_clients = yes
# If non-zero, run mail commands via this many connections to doveadm server,
# instead of running them directly in the same process.
#doveadm_worker_count = 0
# UNIX socket or host:port used for connecting to doveadm server
#doveadm_socket_path = doveadm-server
# Space separated list of environment variables that are preserved on Dovecot
# startup and passed down to all of its child processes. You can also give
# key=value pairs to always set specific settings.
#import_environment = TZ
##
## Dictionary server settings
##
# Dictionary can be used to store key=value lists. This is used by several
# plugins. The dictionary can be accessed either directly or though a
# dictionary server. The following dict block maps dictionary names to URIs
# when the server is used. These can then be referenced using URIs in format
# "proxy::<name>".
dict {
  #quota = mysql:/etc/dovecot/dovecot-dict-sql.conf.ext
  #expire = sqlite:/etc/dovecot/dovecot-dict-sql.conf.ext
}
# Most of the actual configuration gets included below. The filenames are
# first sorted by their ASCII value and parsed in that order. The 00-prefixes
# in filenames are intended to make it easier to understand the ordering.
!include conf.d/*.conf
# A config file can also tried to be included without giving an error if
# it's not found:
!include_try local.conf

/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf[keisti]

Atsidarome /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf failą. Šis failas kontroliuoja kaip Dovecot sąveikauja su serverio failų sistema, kaip saugoti ir gauti žinutes. Mums reikia paredaguoti tik šias eilutes (nurodant kur bus saugomas paštas):

mail_location = maildir:/var/mail/vhosts/%d/%n
mail_privileged_group = mail

Pats konfigūracijos failas:

##
## Mailbox locations and namespaces
##
# Location for users' mailboxes. The default is empty, which means that Dovecot
# tries to find the mailboxes automatically. This won't work if the user
# doesn't yet have any mail, so you should explicitly tell Dovecot the full
# location.
#
# If you're using mbox, giving a path to the INBOX file (eg. /var/mail/%u)
# isn't enough. You'll also need to tell Dovecot where the other mailboxes are
# kept. This is called the "root mail directory", and it must be the first
# path given in the mail_location setting.
#
# There are a few special variables you can use, eg.:
#
#   %u - username
#   %n - user part in user@domain, same as %u if there's no domain
#   %d - domain part in user@domain, empty if there's no domain
#   %h - home directory
#
# See doc/wiki/Variables.txt for full list. Some examples:
#
#   mail_location = maildir:~/Maildir
#   mail_location = mbox:~/mail:INBOX=/var/mail/%u
#   mail_location = mbox:/var/mail/%d/%1n/%n:INDEX=/var/indexes/%d/%1n/%n
#
# <doc/wiki/MailLocation.txt>
#
mail_location = maildir:/var/mail/vhosts/%d/%n 
# If you need to set multiple mailbox locations or want to change default
# namespace settings, you can do it by defining namespace sections.
#
# You can have private, shared and public namespaces. Private namespaces
# are for user's personal mails. Shared namespaces are for accessing other
# users' mailboxes that have been shared. Public namespaces are for shared
# mailboxes that are managed by sysadmin. If you create any shared or public
# namespaces you'll typically want to enable ACL plugin also, otherwise all
# users can access all the shared mailboxes, assuming they have permissions
# on filesystem level to do so.
#
# REMEMBER: If you add any namespaces, the default namespace must be added
# explicitly, ie. mail_location does nothing unless you have a namespace
# without a location setting. Default namespace is simply done by having a
# namespace with empty prefix.
 namespace inbox {
 # Namespace type: private, shared or public
 #type = private
 # Hierarchy separator to use. You should use the same separator for all
 # namespaces or some clients get confused. '/' is usually a good one.
 # The default however depends on the underlying mail storage format.
 #separator = 
 # Prefix required to access this namespace. This needs to be different for
 # all namespaces. For example "Public/".
 #prefix = 
 # Physical location of the mailbox. This is in same format as
 # mail_location, which is also the default for it.
 #location =
 # There can be only one INBOX, and this setting defines which namespace
 # has it.
 inbox = yes
 # If namespace is hidden, it's not advertised to clients via NAMESPACE
 # extension. You'll most likely also want to set list=no. This is mostly
 # useful when converting from another server with different namespaces which
 # you want to deprecate but still keep working. For example you can create
 # hidden namespaces with prefixes "~/mail/", "~%u/mail/" and "mail/".
 #hidden = no
 # Show the mailboxes under this namespace with LIST command. This makes the
 # namespace visible for clients that don't support NAMESPACE extension.
 # "children" value lists child mailboxes, but hides the namespace prefix.
 #list = yes
 # Namespace handles its own subscriptions. If set to "no", the parent
 # namespace handles them (empty prefix should always have this as "yes")
 #subscriptions = yes
 }
 # Example shared namespace configuration
#namespace {
 #type = shared
 #separator = /
 # Mailboxes are visible under "shared/user@domain/"
 # %%n, %%d and %%u are expanded to the destination user.
 #prefix = shared/%%u/
 # Mail location for other users' mailboxes. Note that %variables and ~/
 # expands to the logged in user's data. %%n, %%d, %%u and %%h expand to the
 # destination user's data.
 #location = maildir:%%h/Maildir:INDEX=~/Maildir/shared/%%u
 # Use the default namespace for saving subscriptions.
 #subscriptions = no
 # List the shared/ namespace only if there are visible shared mailboxes.
 #list = children
#}
# System user and group used to access mails. If you use multiple, userdb
# can override these by returning uid or gid fields. You can use either numbers
# or names. <doc/wiki/UserIds.txt>
#mail_uid =
#mail_gid =
# Group to enable temporarily for privileged operations. Currently this is
# used only with INBOX when either its initial creation or dotlocking fails.
# Typically this is set to "mail" to give access to /var/mail.
mail_privileged_group = mail
# Grant access to these supplementary groups for mail processes. Typically
# these are used to set up access to shared mailboxes. Note that it may be
# dangerous to set these if users can create symlinks (e.g. if "mail" group is
# set here, ln -s /var/mail ~/mail/var could allow a user to delete others'
# mailboxes, or ln -s /secret/shared/box ~/mail/mybox would allow reading it).
#mail_access_groups = 
# Allow full filesystem access to clients. There's no access checks other than
# what the operating system does for the active UID/GID. It works with both
# maildir and mboxes, allowing you to prefix mailboxes names with eg. /path/
# or ~user/.
#mail_full_filesystem_access = no
##
## Mail processes
##
# Don't use mmap() at all. This is required if you store indexes to shared
# filesystems (NFS or clustered filesystem).
#mmap_disable = no
# Rely on O_EXCL to work when creating dotlock files. NFS supports O_EXCL
# since version 3, so this should be safe to use nowadays by default.
#dotlock_use_excl = yes
# When to use fsync() or fdatasync() calls:
#   optimized (default): Whenever necessary to avoid losing important data
#   always: Useful with e.g. NFS when write()s are delayed
#   never: Never use it (best performance, but crashes can lose data)
#mail_fsync = optimized
# Mail storage exists in NFS. Set this to yes to make Dovecot flush NFS caches
# whenever needed. If you're using only a single mail server this isn't needed.
#mail_nfs_storage = no
# Mail index files also exist in NFS. Setting this to yes requires
# mmap_disable=yes and fsync_disable=no.
#mail_nfs_index = no
# Locking method for index files. Alternatives are fcntl, flock and dotlock.
# Dotlocking uses some tricks which may create more disk I/O than other locking
# methods. NFS users: flock doesn't work, remember to change mmap_disable.
#lock_method = fcntl
# Directory in which LDA/LMTP temporarily stores incoming mails >128 kB.
#mail_temp_dir = /tmp
# Valid UID range for users, defaults to 500 and above. This is mostly
# to make sure that users can't log in as daemons or other system users.
# Note that denying root logins is hardcoded to dovecot binary and can't
# be done even if first_valid_uid is set to 0.
#first_valid_uid = 500
#last_valid_uid = 0
# Valid GID range for users, defaults to non-root/wheel. Users having
# non-valid GID as primary group ID aren't allowed to log in. If user
# belongs to supplementary groups with non-valid GIDs, those groups are
# not set.
#first_valid_gid = 1
#last_valid_gid = 0
# Maximum allowed length for mail keyword name. It's only forced when trying
# to create new keywords.
#mail_max_keyword_length = 50
# ':' separated list of directories under which chrooting is allowed for mail
# processes (ie. /var/mail will allow chrooting to /var/mail/foo/bar too).
# This setting doesn't affect login_chroot, mail_chroot or auth chroot
# settings. If this setting is empty, "/./" in home dirs are ignored.
# WARNING: Never add directories here which local users can modify, that
# may lead to root exploit. Usually this should be done only if you don't
# allow shell access for users. <doc/wiki/Chrooting.txt>
#valid_chroot_dirs = 
# Default chroot directory for mail processes. This can be overridden for
# specific users in user database by giving /./ in user's home directory
# (eg. /home/./user chroots into /home). Note that usually there is no real
# need to do chrooting, Dovecot doesn't allow users to access files outside
# their mail directory anyway. If your home directories are prefixed with
# the chroot directory, append "/." to mail_chroot. <doc/wiki/Chrooting.txt>
#mail_chroot =  
# UNIX socket path to master authentication server to find users.
# This is used by imap (for shared users) and lda.
#auth_socket_path = /var/run/dovecot/auth-userdb
# Directory where to look up mail plugins.
#mail_plugin_dir = /usr/lib/dovecot/modules 
# Space separated list of plugins to load for all services. Plugins specific to
# IMAP, LDA, etc. are added to this list in their own .conf files.
#mail_plugins = 
##
## Mailbox handling optimizations
##
# The minimum number of mails in a mailbox before updates are done to cache
# file. This allows optimizing Dovecot's behavior to do less disk writes at
# the cost of more disk reads.
#mail_cache_min_mail_count = 0
# When IDLE command is running, mailbox is checked once in a while to see if
# there are any new mails or other changes. This setting defines the minimum
# time to wait between those checks. Dovecot can also use dnotify, inotify and
# kqueue to find out immediately when changes occur.
#mailbox_idle_check_interval = 30 secs 
# Save mails with CR+LF instead of plain LF. This makes sending those mails
# take less CPU, especially with sendfile() syscall with Linux and FreeBSD.
# But it also creates a bit more disk I/O which may just make it slower.
# Also note that if other software reads the mboxes/maildirs, they may handle
# the extra CRs wrong and cause problems.
#mail_save_crlf = no
##
## Maildir-specific settings
##
# By default LIST command returns all entries in maildir beginning with a dot.
# Enabling this option makes Dovecot return only entries which are directories.
# This is done by stat()ing each entry, so it causes more disk I/O.
# (For systems setting struct dirent->d_type, this check is free and it's
# done always regardless of this setting)
#maildir_stat_dirs = no
# When copying a message, do it with hard links whenever possible. This makes
# the performance much better, and it's unlikely to have any side effects.
#maildir_copy_with_hardlinks = yes
# Assume Dovecot is the only MUA accessing Maildir: Scan cur/ directory only
# when its mtime changes unexpectedly or when we can't find the mail otherwise.
#maildir_very_dirty_syncs = no 
##
## mbox-specific settings
##
# Which locking methods to use for locking mbox. There are four available:
#  dotlock: Create <mailbox>.lock file. This is the oldest and most NFS-safe
#           solution. If you want to use /var/mail/ like directory, the users
#           will need write access to that directory.
#  dotlock_try: Same as dotlock, but if it fails because of permissions or
#               because there isn't enough disk space, just skip it.
#  fcntl  : Use this if possible. Works with NFS too if lockd is used.
#  flock  : May not exist in all systems. Doesn't work with NFS.
#  lockf  : May not exist in all systems. Doesn't work with NFS.
#
# You can use multiple locking methods; if you do the order they're declared
# in is important to avoid deadlocks if other MTAs/MUAs are using multiple
# locking methods as well. Some operating systems don't allow using some of
# them simultaneously.
#mbox_read_locks = fcntl
#mbox_write_locks = dotlock fcntl 
# Maximum time to wait for lock (all of them) before aborting.
#mbox_lock_timeout = 5 mins
# If dotlock exists but the mailbox isn't modified in any way, override the
# lock file after this much time.
#mbox_dotlock_change_timeout = 2 mins
# When mbox changes unexpectedly we have to fully read it to find out what
# changed. If the mbox is large this can take a long time. Since the change
# is usually just a newly appended mail, it'd be faster to simply read the
# new mails. If this setting is enabled, Dovecot does this but still safely
# fallbacks to re-reading the whole mbox file whenever something in mbox isn't
# how it's expected to be. The only real downside to this setting is that if
# some other MUA changes message flags, Dovecot doesn't notice it immediately.
# Note that a full sync is done with SELECT, EXAMINE, EXPUNGE and CHECK 
# commands.
#mbox_dirty_syncs = yes 
# Like mbox_dirty_syncs, but don't do full syncs even with SELECT, EXAMINE,
# EXPUNGE or CHECK commands. If this is set, mbox_dirty_syncs is ignored.
#mbox_very_dirty_syncs = no 
# Delay writing mbox headers until doing a full write sync (EXPUNGE and CHECK
# commands and when closing the mailbox). This is especially useful for POP3
# where clients often delete all mails. The downside is that our changes
# aren't immediately visible to other MUAs.
#mbox_lazy_writes = yes 
# If mbox size is smaller than this (e.g. 100k), don't write index files.
# If an index file already exists it's still read, just not updated. 
#mbox_min_index_size = 0
##
## mdbox-specific settings
##
# Maximum dbox file size until it's rotated.
#mdbox_rotate_size = 2M
# Maximum dbox file age until it's rotated. Typically in days. Day begins
# from midnight, so 1d = today, 2d = yesterday, etc. 0 = check disabled.
#mdbox_rotate_interval = 0
# When creating new mdbox files, immediately preallocate their size to
# mdbox_rotate_size. This setting currently works only in Linux with some
# filesystems (ext4, xfs).
#mdbox_preallocate_space = no
##
## Mail attachments
##
# sdbox and mdbox support saving mail attachments to external files, which
# also allows single instance storage for them. Other backends don't support
# this for now.
# WARNING: This feature hasn't been tested much yet. Use at your own risk.
# Directory root where to store mail attachments. Disabled, if empty.
#mail_attachment_dir =
# Attachments smaller than this aren't saved externally. It's also possible to
# write a plugin to disable saving specific attachments externally.
#mail_attachment_min_size = 128k
# Filesystem backend to use for saving attachments:
#  posix : No SiS done by Dovecot (but this might help FS's own deduplication)
#  sis posix : SiS with immediate byte-by-byte comparison during saving
#  sis-queue posix : SiS with delayed comparison and deduplication
#mail_attachment_fs = sis posix
# Hash format to use in attachment filenames. You can add any text and
# variables: %{md4}, %{md5}, %{sha1}, %{sha256}, %{sha512}, %{size}.
# Variables can be truncated, e.g. %{sha256:80} returns only first 80 bits
#mail_attachment_hash = %{sha1}

Išsaugome pakeitimus.

Teisės (ne vairuotojo)[keisti]

Pasižiūrime kokias teises tūri tąsai katalogas/direktorija:

ls -ld /var/mail

Turėtų turėti:

drwxrwsr-x 2 root mail 4096 Mar  6 15:08 /var/mail

Sukuriame katalogą, vhosts bei domeno katalogą:

mkdir -p /var/mail/vhosts/example.com

Sukuriame vmail sistemos vartotoją su 5000 grupės id, šis vartotojas bus atsakingas už pašto skaitymą iš serverio:

groupadd -g 5000 vmail
useradd -g vmail -u 5000 vmail -d /var/mail

Pakeičiame katalogo /var/mail/ ir jo subkatalogų sąvininką į vmail:

chown -R vmail:vmail /var/mail

/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-auth.conf[keisti]

Atsidarome autentifikacijos failą /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-auth.conf ir išjungiame tekstinio pobūdžio autentifikavimą:

disable_plaintext_auth = yes

Nustatome autentifikavimo mechanizmus pakeitę eilutę:

auth_mechanisms = plain login

Užkomentuojame sistemos vartotojų prisijungimo galimybes:

#!include auth-system.conf.ext

Įjungiame MySQL paremtą autentifikaciją atkomentuodami auth-sql.conf.ext eilutę:

#!include auth-system.conf.ext
!include auth-sql.conf.ext
#!include auth-ldap.conf.ext
#!include auth-passwdfile.conf.ext
#!include auth-checkpassword.conf.ext
#!include auth-vpopmail.conf.ext
#!include auth-static.conf.ext

Failas turi atrodyti taip:

##
## Authentication processes
##
# Disable LOGIN command and all other plaintext authentications unless
# SSL/TLS is used (LOGINDISABLED capability). Note that if the remote IP
# matches the local IP (ie. you're connecting from the same computer), the
# connection is considered secure and plaintext authentication is allowed.
disable_plaintext_auth = yes
# Authentication cache size (e.g. 10M). 0 means it's disabled. Note that
# bsdauth, PAM and vpopmail require cache_key to be set for caching to be used.
#auth_cache_size = 0
# Time to live for cached data. After TTL expires the cached record is no
# longer used, *except* if the main database lookup returns internal failure.
# We also try to handle password changes automatically: If user's previous
# authentication was successful, but this one wasn't, the cache isn't used.
# For now this works only with plaintext authentication.
#auth_cache_ttl = 1 hour
# TTL for negative hits (user not found, password mismatch).
# 0 disables caching them completely.
#auth_cache_negative_ttl = 1 hour
# Space separated list of realms for SASL authentication mechanisms that need
# them. You can leave it empty if you don't want to support multiple realms.
# Many clients simply use the first one listed here, so keep the default realm
# first.
#auth_realms =
# Default realm/domain to use if none was specified. This is used for both
# SASL realms and appending @domain to username in plaintext logins.
#auth_default_realm =  
# List of allowed characters in username. If the user-given username contains
# a character not listed in here, the login automatically fails. This is just
# an extra check to make sure user can't exploit any potential quote escaping
# vulnerabilities with SQL/LDAP databases. If you want to allow all characters,
# set this value to empty.
#auth_username_chars = abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ01234567890.-_@
# Username character translations before it's looked up from databases. The
# value contains series of from -> to characters. For example "#@/@" means
# that '#' and '/' characters are translated to '@'.
#auth_username_translation = 
# Username formatting before it's looked up from databases. You can use
# the standard variables here, eg. %Lu would lowercase the username, %n would
# drop away the domain if it was given, or "%n-AT-%d" would change the '@' into
# "-AT-". This translation is done after auth_username_translation changes.
#auth_username_format = 
# If you want to allow master users to log in by specifying the master
# username within the normal username string (ie. not using SASL mechanism's
# support for it), you can specify the separator character here. The format
# is then <username><separator><master username>. UW-IMAP uses "*" as the
# separator, so that could be a good choice.
#auth_master_user_separator =
# Username to use for users logging in with ANONYMOUS SASL mechanism
#auth_anonymous_username = anonymous
# Maximum number of dovecot-auth worker processes. They're used to execute
# blocking passdb and userdb queries (eg. MySQL and PAM). They're
# automatically created and destroyed as needed.
#auth_worker_max_count = 30 
# Host name to use in GSSAPI principal names. The default is to use the
# name returned by gethostname(). Use "$ALL" (with quotes) to allow all keytab
# entries.
#auth_gssapi_hostname =
# Kerberos keytab to use for the GSSAPI mechanism. Will use the system
# default (usually /etc/krb5.keytab) if not specified. You may need to change
# the auth service to run as root to be able to read this file.
#auth_krb5_keytab = 
# Do NTLM and GSS-SPNEGO authentication using Samba's winbind daemon and
# ntlm_auth helper. <doc/wiki/Authentication/Mechanisms/Winbind.txt>
#auth_use_winbind = no
# Path for Samba's ntlm_auth helper binary.
#auth_winbind_helper_path = /usr/bin/ntlm_auth
# Time to delay before replying to failed authentications.
#auth_failure_delay = 2 secs
# Require a valid SSL client certificate or the authentication fails.
#auth_ssl_require_client_cert = no
# Take the username from client's SSL certificate, using 
# X509_NAME_get_text_by_NID() which returns the subject's DN's
# CommonName. 
#auth_ssl_username_from_cert = no 
# Space separated list of wanted authentication mechanisms:
#   plain login digest-md5 cram-md5 ntlm rpa apop anonymous gssapi otp skey
#   gss-spnego
# NOTE: See also disable_plaintext_auth setting.
auth_mechanisms = plain login
##
## Password and user databases
##
#
# Password database is used to verify user's password (and nothing more).
# You can have multiple passdbs and userdbs. This is useful if you want to
# allow both system users (/etc/passwd) and virtual users to login without
# duplicating the system users into virtual database.
#
# <doc/wiki/PasswordDatabase.txt>
#
# User database specifies where mails are located and what user/group IDs
# own them. For single-UID configuration use "static" userdb.
#
# <doc/wiki/UserDatabase.txt>
#!include auth-deny.conf.ext
#!include auth-master.conf.ext
#!include auth-system.conf.ext
!include auth-sql.conf.ext
#!include auth-ldap.conf.ext
#!include auth-passwdfile.conf.ext
#!include auth-checkpassword.conf.ext
#!include auth-vpopmail.conf.ext
#!include auth-static.conf.ext

Išsaugome pakeitimus ir einam parūkyt..

/etc/dovecot/conf.d/auth-sql.conf.ext[keisti]

Taisome failą /etc/dovecot/conf.d/auth-sql.conf.ext su autentifikavimo metodo informacija:

passdb {
  driver = sql
  args = /etc/dovecot/dovecot-sql.conf.ext
}
userdb {
  driver = static
  args = uid=vmail gid=vmail home=/var/mail/vhosts/%d/%n
}

/etc/dovecot/dovecot-sql.conf.ext[keisti]

Atnaujiname failą /etc/dovecot/dovecot-sql.conf.ext su mūsų MySQL prisijungimų informacija. Atkomentuojame šias eilutes

driver = mysql
connect = host=127.0.0.1 dbname=mailserveris user=mailuser password=mailuserpass
default_pass_scheme = SHA512-CRYPT
password_query = SELECT email as user, password FROM virtual_users WHERE email='%u';

PASTABA! Ši slaptažodžio užklausa naudoja tiktai virtual_users lentelę vartotojo informacijai gauti. Jeigu norite, kad aliasas/perradresavimas veiktų kaip realus vartotojas, užklausa turėtų atrodyti kiek kitaip:

password_query = SELECT email as user, password FROM virtual_users WHERE email=(SELECT destination FROM virtual_aliases WHERE source = '%u');

Pilnas pavyzdys:

# This file is opened as root, so it should be owned by root and mode 0600.
#
# http://wiki2.dovecot.org/AuthDatabase/SQL
#
# For the sql passdb module, you'll need a database with a table that
# contains fields for at least the username and password. If you want to
# use the user@domain syntax, you might want to have a separate domain
# field as well.
#
# If your users all have the same uig/gid, and have predictable home
# directories, you can use the static userdb module to generate the home
# dir based on the username and domain. In this case, you won't need fields
# for home, uid, or gid in the database.
#
# If you prefer to use the sql userdb module, you'll want to add fields
# for home, uid, and gid. Here is an example table:
#
# CREATE TABLE users (
#     username VARCHAR(128) NOT NULL,
#     domain VARCHAR(128) NOT NULL,
#     password VARCHAR(64) NOT NULL,
#     home VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
#     uid INTEGER NOT NULL,
#     gid INTEGER NOT NULL,
#     active CHAR(1) DEFAULT 'Y' NOT NULL
# );  
# Database driver: mysql, pgsql, sqlite
driver = mysql
# Database connection string. This is driver-specific setting.
#
# HA / round-robin load-balancing is supported by giving multiple host
# settings, like: host=sql1.host.org host=sql2.host.org
#
# pgsql:
#   For available options, see the PostgreSQL documention for the
#   PQconnectdb function of libpq.
#   Use maxconns=n (default 5) to change how many connections Dovecot can
#   create to pgsql.
#
# mysql:
#   Basic options emulate PostgreSQL option names:
#     host, port, user, password, dbname
#
#   But also adds some new settings:
#     client_flags        - See MySQL manual
#     ssl_ca, ssl_ca_path - Set either one or both to enable SSL
#     ssl_cert, ssl_key   - For sending client-side certificates to server
#     ssl_cipher          - Set minimum allowed cipher security (default: HIGH)
#      option_file         - Read options from the given file instead of
#                            the default my.cnf location
#      option_group        - Read options from the given group (default: client)
# 
#   You can connect to UNIX sockets by using host: host=/var/run/mysql.sock
#   Note that currently you can't use spaces in parameters.
#
# sqlite:
#   The path to the database file.
#
# Examples:
#   connect = host=192.168.1.1 dbname=users
#   connect = host=sql.example.com dbname=virtual user=virtual password=blarg
#   connect = /etc/dovecot/authdb.sqlite
#
connect = host=127.0.0.1 dbname=mailserveris user=mailuser password=mailuserpass
# Default password scheme.
#
# List of supported schemes is in
# http://wiki2.dovecot.org/Authentication/PasswordSchemes
#
default_pass_scheme = SHA512-CRYPT
# passdb query to retrieve the password. It can return fields:
#   password - The user's password. This field must be returned.
#   user - user@domain from the database. Needed with case-insensitive lookups.
#   username and domain - An alternative way to represent the "user" field.
#
# The "user" field is often necessary with case-insensitive lookups to avoid
# e.g. "name" and "nAme" logins creating two different mail directories. If
# your user and domain names are in separate fields, you can return "username"
# and "domain" fields instead of "user".
# 
#  The query can also return other fields which have a special meaning, see
#  http://wiki2.dovecot.org/PasswordDatabase/ExtraFields
#
# Commonly used available substitutions (see http://wiki2.dovecot.org/Variables
# for full list):
#   %u = entire user@domain
#   %n = user part of user@domain
#   %d = domain part of user@domain
# 
# Note that these can be used only as input to SQL query. If the query outputs
# any of these substitutions, they're not touched. Otherwise it would be
# difficult to have eg. usernames containing '%' characters.
#
# Example:
#   password_query = SELECT userid AS user, pw AS password \
#     FROM users WHERE userid = '%u' AND active = 'Y'
#
#password_query = \
#  SELECT username, domain, password \
#  FROM users WHERE username = '%n' AND domain = '%d'
password_query = SELECT email as user, password FROM virtual_users WHERE email='%u';  
# userdb query to retrieve the user information. It can return fields:
#   uid - System UID (overrides mail_uid setting)
#   gid - System GID (overrides mail_gid setting)
#   home - Home directory
#   mail - Mail location (overrides mail_location setting)
#
# None of these are strictly required. If you use a single UID and GID, and
# home or mail directory fits to a template string, you could use userdb static
# instead. For a list of all fields that can be returned, see
# http://wiki2.dovecot.org/UserDatabase/ExtraFields
#
# Examples:
#   user_query = SELECT home, uid, gid FROM users WHERE userid = '%u'
#   user_query = SELECT dir AS home, user AS uid, group AS gid FROM users where userid = '%u'
#   user_query = SELECT home, 501 AS uid, 501 AS gid FROM users WHERE userid = '%u'
#
#user_query = \
#  SELECT home, uid, gid \
#  FROM users WHERE username = '%n' AND domain = '%d'
# If you wish to avoid two SQL lookups (passdb + userdb), you can use
# userdb prefetch instead of userdb sql in dovecot.conf. In that case you'll
# also have to return userdb fields in password_query prefixed with "userdb_"
# string. For example:
#password_query = \
#  SELECT userid AS user, password, \
#    home AS userdb_home, uid AS userdb_uid, gid AS userdb_gid \
#  FROM users WHERE userid = '%u'
# Query to get a list of all usernames.
#iterate_query = SELECT username AS user FROM users

Išsaugome ir būtinai priskiriame normalias teises, kad kokie balvonai neišleakintų informacijos:

chown -R vmail:dovecot /etc/dovecot
chmod -R o-rwx /etc/dovecot

/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-master.conf[keisti]

Išjungiame nešifruotą IMAP ir POP3 nustatant protokolų portus į 0 kaip parodyta žemiau. Taip pat įsitikinkite, kad įrašai apie port ir ssl naudojant IMAPS ir pop3s yra atkomentuoti kaip aprašyta apačioje:

service imap-login {
inet_listener imap {
  #port = 0
}
inet_listener imaps {
port = 993
ssl = yes
}
  ...
  service pop3-login {
    inet_listener pop3 {
      port = 0
    }
inet_listener pop3s {
  port = 995
  ssl = yes
}
 ...
 }

Visas failas:

#default_process_limit = 100
#default_client_limit = 1000
# Default VSZ (virtual memory size) limit for service processes. This is mainly
# intended to catch and kill processes that leak memory before they eat up
# everything.
#default_vsz_limit = 256M
# Login user is internally used by login processes. This is the most untrusted
# user in Dovecot system. It shouldn't have access to anything at all.
#default_login_user = dovenull
# Internal user is used by unprivileged processes. It should be separate from
# login user, so that login processes can't disturb other processes.
#default_internal_user = dovecot
service imap-login {
 inet_listener imap {
   port = 0
 }
 inet_listener imaps {
   #port = 993
   #ssl = yes
 }
 # Number of connections to handle before starting a new process. Typically
 # the only useful values are 0 (unlimited) or 1. 1 is more secure, but 0
 # is faster. <doc/wiki/LoginProcess.txt>
 #service_count = 1
 # Number of processes to always keep waiting for more connections.
 #process_min_avail = 0
  # If you set service_count=0, you probably need to grow this.
  #vsz_limit = 64M
}  
service pop3-login {
  inet_listener pop3 {
    port = 0
  }
  inet_listener pop3s {
    #port = 995
    #ssl = yes
  }
} 
service lmtp {
 unix_listener /var/spool/postfix/private/dovecot-lmtp {
   mode = 0600
   user = postfix
   group = postfix
  }
  # Create inet listener only if you can't use the above UNIX socket
  #inet_listener lmtp {
    # Avoid making LMTP visible for the entire internet
    #address =
    #port = 
  #}
}
service imap {
  # Most of the memory goes to mmap()ing files. You may need to increase this
  # limit if you have huge mailboxes.
  #vsz_limit = 256M 
  # Max. number of IMAP processes (connections)
  #process_limit = 1024
}
service pop3 {
  # Max. number of POP3 processes (connections)
  #process_limit = 1024
}
service auth {
  # auth_socket_path points to this userdb socket by default. It's typically
  # used by dovecot-lda, doveadm, possibly imap process, etc. Its default
  # permissions make it readable only by root, but you may need to relax these
  # permissions. Users that have access to this socket are able to get a list
  # of all usernames and get results of everyone's userdb lookups.
  unix_listener /var/spool/postfix/private/auth {
    mode = 0666
    user = postfix
    group = postfix
  }
  unix_listener auth-userdb {
    mode = 0600
    user = vmail
    #group = vmail
  }
  # Postfix smtp-auth
  #unix_listener /var/spool/postfix/private/auth {
  #  mode = 0666
  #} 
  # Auth process is run as this user.
  user = dovecot
}
service auth-worker {
  # Auth worker process is run as root by default, so that it can access
  # /etc/shadow. If this isn't necessary, the user should be changed to
  # $default_internal_user.
  user = vmail
}
service dict {
  # If dict proxy is used, mail processes should have access to its socket.
  # For example: mode=0660, group=vmail and global mail_access_groups=vmail
  unix_listener dict {
    #mode = 0600
    #user = 
    #group = 
  }
}

Išsaugome.

Patikriname ar SSL sertifikatai egzistuoja[keisti]

ls /etc/dovecot/dovecot.pem
ls /etc/dovecot/private/dovecot.pem

Sertifikatų nematysite jeigu naudojate Dovecot 2.2.13-7 ar vėlesnę versiją kuri išėjo su Debian 8 (jessie) sistemomis. Jeigu turite savus SSL sertifikatus, įdėkite juos į serverį, bei nurodykite kur jie sudėti faile /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf. Atsidarius šį failą turite matyti:

##
## SSL settings
##
# SSL/TLS support: yes, no, required. <doc/wiki/SSL.txt>
ssl = required
# PEM encoded X.509 SSL/TLS certificate and private key. They're opened before
# dropping root privileges, so keep the key file unreadable by anyone but
# root. Included doc/mkcert.sh can be used to easily generate self-signed
# certificate, just make sure to update the domains in dovecot-openssl.cnf
ssl_cert = </etc/ssl/certs/dovecot.pem
ssl_key = </etc/ssl/private/dovecot.pem
# If key file is password protected, give the password here. Alternatively
# give it when starting dovecot with -p parameter. Since this file is often
# world-readable, you may want to place this setting instead to a different
# root owned 0600 file by using ssl_key_password = <path.
#ssl_key_password =
# PEM encoded trusted certificate authority. Set this only if you intend to use
# ssl_verify_client_cert=yes. The file should contain the CA certificate(s)
# followed by the matching CRL(s). (e.g. ssl_ca = </etc/ssl/certs/ca.pem)
#ssl_ca =  
# Request client to send a certificate. If you also want to require it, set
# auth_ssl_require_client_cert=yes in auth section.
#ssl_verify_client_cert = no
# Which field from certificate to use for username. commonName and
# x500UniqueIdentifier are the usual choices. You'll also need to set
# auth_ssl_username_from_cert=yes.
#ssl_cert_username_field = commonName 
# How often to regenerate the SSL parameters file. Generation is quite CPU
# intensive operation. The value is in hours, 0 disables regeneration
# entirely.
#ssl_parameters_regenerate = 168
# SSL ciphers to use
#ssl_cipher_list = ALL:!LOW:!SSLv2:!EXP:!aNULL

Išsaugome.

Self-Generated sertifikatų generavimas[keisti]

Jeigu neturite pirktų SSL sertifikatų ir Dovecot jums nepateikė taip pat jokių tuomet teks generuotis patiems..

cd /etc/dovecot
cp /usr/share/dovecot/dovecot-openssl.cnf /etc/dovecot/

Pasiredaguojame /etc/dovecot/dovecot-openssl.cnf panašų į:

#
# SSLeay configuration file for Dovecot.
#
RANDFILE                = /dev/urandom
 [ req ]
default_bits            = 2048
default_keyfile         = privkey.pem
distinguished_name      = req_distinguished_name
prompt                  = no
policy                  = policy_anything
req_extensions          = v3_req
x509_extensions         = v3_req 
[ req_distinguished_name ]
organizationName = Dovecot mail server
organizationalUnitName = @commonName@
commonName = @commonName@
emailAddress = @emailAddress@
[ v3_req ]
basicConstraints        = CA:FALSE

Leidžiame generavimą

sh /usr/share/dovecot/mkcert.sh

Arba

openssl genrsa -out key.pem 1024
openssl req -new -key key.pem -out request.pem
openssl x509 -req -days 30 -in request.pem -signkey key.pem -out certificate.pem

Perkrauname[keisti]

service dovecot restart

Klaidų tikrinimas[keisti]

Jeigu kažką privėlėt savo kreivom rankytėm tuomet žiūrėkit /var/log/mail.log.

Pašto Testavimas[keisti]

Sukuriame testinį vartotoją, el. pašto kliente, dauguma nustatymų klientas susigaudo pats bet kai kuriuos reikia sumaigyti pirštais. Keletas faktų kuriuos reikia žinoti:

  • Vartotojo vardas aprašomas kaip vartotojas@domenas pvz.: petras@example.com t.y su pilnu pašto adresu.
  • Išeinamas ir įeinamas serveris turi būti jūsų domeno pavadinimas.
  • Abu išeinantis/įeinantys serveriai reikalauja SSL šifruotės.
  • Naudojame 993 prievadą saugiam IMAP, 995 prievadą saugiam POP3, 25 prievadą su SSL SMTP (Pašto siuntimui).

Pradžiai bandome siųsti laišką į išorinį adresatą ir atrašyti iš jo atgal tuomet žiūrime pašto serverio žurnalą ar viskas nuėjo gerai

/var/log/mail.log 

Pirmasis pavyzdys tai įeinanti žinutė antrasis išeinanti

Mar 22 18:18:15 host postfix/smtpd[22574]: connect from mail1.gmail.com[96.126.108.55]
Mar 22 18:18:15 host postfix/smtpd[22574]: 2BD192839B: client=mail1.gmail.com[96.126.108.55]
Mar 22 18:18:15 host postfix/cleanup[22583]: 2BD192839B: message-id=<D4887A5E-DEAC-45CE-BDDF-3C89DEA84236@example.com>
Mar 22 18:18:15 host postfix/qmgr[15878]: 2BD192839B: from=<support@gmail.com>, size=1156, nrcpt=1 (queue active)
Mar 22 18:18:15 host postfix/smtpd[22574]: disconnect from mail1.gmail.com[96.126.108.55]
Mar 22 18:18:15 host dovecot: lmtp(22587): Connect from local
Mar 22 18:18:15 host dovecot: lmtp(22587, email1@example.com): 5GjrDafYTFE7WAAABf1gKA: msgid=<D4887A5E-DEAC-45CE-BDDF-3C89DEA84236@gmail.com>: saved mail to INBOX
Mar 22 18:18:15 host dovecot: lmtp(22587): Disconnect from local: Client quit (in reset)
Mar 22 18:18:15 host postfix/lmtp[22586]: 2BD192839B: to=<email1@example.com>, relay=host.example.com[private/dovecot-lmtp], delay=0.09, delays=0.03/0.02/0.03/0.01, dsn=2.0.0, status=sent (250 2.0.0 <email1@example.com> 5GjrDafYTFE7WAAABf1gKA Saved)
Mar 22 18:18:15 host postfix/qmgr[15878]: 2BD192839B: removed
Mar 22 18:20:29 host postfix/smtpd[22590]: connect from [173.161.199.49]
Mar 22 18:20:29 host dovecot: auth-worker: mysql(127.0.0.1): Connected to database mailserveris
Mar 22 18:20:29 host postfix/smtpd[22590]: AA10A2839B: client=[173.161.199.49], sasl_method=PLAIN, sasl_username=email1@example.com
Mar 22 18:20:29 host postfix/cleanup[22599]: AA10A2839B: message-id=<FB6213FA-6F13-49A8-A5DD-F324A4FCF9E9@example.com>
Mar 22 18:20:29 host postfix/qmgr[15878]: AA10A2839B: from=<email1@example.com>, size=920, nrcpt=1 (queue active)
Mar 22 18:20:29 host postfix/smtp[22601]: AA10A2839B: to=<support@gmail.com>, relay=mail1.gmail.com[96.126.108.55]:25, delay=0.14, delays=0.08/0.01/0.05/0.01, dsn=2.0.0, status=sent (250  2.0.0 Ok: queued as C4232266C9)
Mar 22 18:20:29 host postfix/qmgr[15878]: AA10A2839B: removed

SSL testavimas[keisti]

openssl s_client -connect example.com:pop3s

Jeigu viskas suvaikščiojo, sveikinu sukūrus, saugų, tvarkingą ir puikiai veikiantį pašto serverį. ;-)

Invalid settings: postmaster_address[keisti]

Jeigu žurnale /var/log/syslog stating užmatome "Invalid settings: postmaster_address setting not given", turbūt reiks pakeisti eilutę faile /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf į:

postmaster_address=postmaster at DOMAIN

Pakeičiam tiktai DOMAIN į kokį jūsų example.com

Vartotojų/Domenų pridėjimai/šalinimai[keisti]

Serveris veikia viskas lyg ir ok, o kaip su naujų vartotojų ar domenų pridėjimu ? Kaip su alias'ų redagavimu, kaip administruoti ? - Turite mysql komandinės eilutės įrankį tai ir administruokite, arba tinginiaukite su phpMyAdmin.

Pridedam domenus[keisti]

mysql -p mailserveris
INSERT INTO `mailserveris`.`virtual_domains` (`name`) VALUES ('newdomain.com'); 

Patikrinam:

SELECT * FROM virtual_domains WHERE name = 'newdomain.com';

Pridedam emailus[keisti]

INSERT INTO `mailserveris`.`virtual_users`
  (`domain_id`, `password` , `email`)
VALUES
  ('5', ENCRYPT('newpassword', CONCAT('$6$', SUBSTRING(SHA(RAND()), -16))) , 'email3@newdomain.com');

Tiktai įsitikinkite, kad naudojate korektišką domain id... Patikrinam:

SELECT * FROM virtual_users WHERE email = 'email3@newdomain.com';

Aliasai/perradresavimai[keisti]

Norint pridėti aliasą/perradresavimą pakeičiame alias@newdomain.com su tuo iš kurio norite peradresuoti laišką bei myemail@gmail.com į tą kuris gaus laiškus. alias@newdomain.com jau turi egzistuoti kaip pašto vartotojas serveryje.

INSERT INTO `mailserveris`.`virtual_aliases`
  (`domain_id`, `source`, `destination`)
VALUES
  ('5', 'alias@newdomain.com', 'myemail@gmail.com');

Taip pat galima naudoti "catch-all" metodo aliasa kuris peradresuos visus laiškus skirtus tam tikram domenui į kitą vartotoją:

INSERT INTO `mailserver`.`virtual_aliases`
  (`domain_id`, `source`, `destination`)
VALUES
  ('5', '@newdomain.com', 'myemail@gmail.com');

Visada patikriname:

SELECT * FROM virtual_aliases;

Papildomai[keisti]

Vartotojų pridėjimo/ištrinimo scriptas

#!/bin/bash
DB=mailserveris
DOMAIN_ID=1
PASS=`cat /dev/urandom| tr -dc 'a-zA-Z0-9' | fold -w 15| head -n1`
if [ "$1" == "" ]; then
echo "Komandos $1 add/del <vartotojas>"
exit 1
fi
if [ "$2" == "" ]; then
        echo "Nenurodytas vartotojo vardas!"
        exit 1
fi
USER="$2"
DOM=$(mysql $DB -se "SELECT name FROM virtual_domains WHERE id=$DOMAIN_ID")
if [ "$1" == "add" ]; then
echo "Naujo vartotojo pridejimas"
mysql --database="$DB" --execute="INSERT INTO virtual_users (domain_id, password, email) VALUES ('${DOMAIN_ID}', ENCRYPT('${PASS}', CONCAT('\$6\$', SUBSTRING(SHA(RAND()), -16))) , '${USER}@${DOM}');"
echo "Vartotojas sukurtas: $USER - Pass: $PASS - Domenas: $DOM"
elif [ "$1" == "del" ]; then
echo "Seno vartotojo salinimas"
mysql --database="$DB" --execute="DELETE FROM virtual_users WHERE email = '$USER@$DOM';"
echo "Pasalintas vartotojas $USER"
fi

Originalas

Aliasų pridėjimo/išėmimo scriptas

#!/bin/bash
DB=mailserveris
DOMAIN_ID=1
if [ `id -u` != 0 ]; then
echo "Scriptas turi buti paleistas is root"
exit 1
fi

if [ "$1" == "" ]; then
echo "Komandos: $0 add/del <vartotojas> <i_ka@forwardinti.lt"
echo "pvz.: $0 add abuse admin@domenas.lt"
echo "Prides aliasa abuse@domenas.lt nupointinta i admin@domenas.lt"
exit 1
fi
if [ "$2" == "" ]; then
        echo "Nenurodytas vartotojo vardas!"
        exit 1
fi
if [ "$1" == "add" ] && [ "$3" == "" ];then
        echo "Nenurodyta i ka forwardinti!"
        exit 1
fi
USER="$2"
DEST="$3"
DOM=$(mysql $DB -se "SELECT name FROM virtual_domains WHERE id=$DOMAIN_ID")
if [ "$1" == "add" ]; then
echo "Naujo alias pridejimas"
mysql --database="$DB" --execute="INSERT INTO virtual_aliases (domain_id, source, destination) VALUES ('${DOMAIN_ID}', '${USER}@${DOM}', '${DEST}');"
echo "Alias sukurtas: $USER@$DOM - Pointina i: $DEST"
elif [ "$1" == "del" ]; then
echo "Seno alias salinimas"
mysql --database="$DB" --execute="DELETE FROM virtual_aliases WHERE source = '$USER@$DOM';"
echo "Pasalintas alias $USER@$DOM"
fi

Originalas